There are several coffee varieties, each with its own unique characteristics in terms of flavour, aroma, and growing conditions. The two primary species of coffee plants that are widely cultivated are Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta. Within these species, there are numerous varieties and cultivars. Here are some notable examples:
Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica):
- Typica: One of the oldest and most traditional varieties, known for its mild and smooth flavour.
- Bourbon: Named after the island of Bourbon (now Réunion), it is known for its well-balanced flavour profile.
- Geisha (or Gesha): Grown in Panama and other regions, Geisha is famous for its unique and complex flavour, often with floral and fruity notes.
- SL28 and SL34: Varieties developed in Kenya, known for producing coffees with bright acidity and fruity flavours.
Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora):
- Congo Coffee: Grown in the Democratic Republic of Congo, it is a variety of Robusta known for its full body and earthy flavour.
- Java Robusta: Grown in Indonesia, it is a Robusta variety that is often used in espresso blends.
- Ethiopian Heirloom: In Ethiopia, where coffee originated, many varieties are collectively referred to as Ethiopian Heirloom, each with unique characteristics.
- Panama Varietals: Apart from Geisha, Panama is known for growing other varietals like Typica, Bourbon, and Pacamara.
Pacamara:A hybrid between Pacas (a variety of arabica) and Maragogipe (a mutation of Typica), known for its large beans and unique cup profile.
These are just a few examples, and there are many more coffee varieties and hybrids cultivated worldwide.
The specific growing conditions, altitude, soil, and processing methods also contribute to the diverse range of flavours found in different coffees. Specialty coffee enthusiasts often appreciate the distinct qualities associated with various coffee varieties.